Remembering Our Fellows
Being named an AIB Fellow is one of the highest honors our association can confer. In this section of the archive, friends and colleagues share their memories about our Fellows’ professional accomplishments, as well as their personal contributions to the Academy of International Business.
Jeffrey S. Arpan
Dr. Jeffrey S. Arpan is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of International Business at the University of South Carolina, ranked #1 in international business by US News and World Report since 1989. He is also a Fellow and previous President of the Academy of International Business (the professional association of thousands of international business professors throughout the world) and a board member and executive of Hispanic Connections.
At age 24 he was the youngest person to receive a doctoral degree in international business from Indiana University and his dissertation was selected by the Academy of International Business as the best international business dissertation completed in 1971. In 1976, he was selected as one of the “Outstanding Young Men in America”, in 2001 was named one of the “Ten Southerners to Watch in Globalization” by the Southern Growth Policies Board, and in 2002 was selected as the Community Ambassador of the Year for 2002 by the Board of Directors of International Friendship Ministries.
For more than a quarter of a century, he has researched and presented international business topics in over a dozen countries on five continents. His primary research interests are the global competitiveness of industries, the impact of culture on business practices, the relationship between international business and the ecological environment, and international business education. He has authored more than a half dozen books and fifty articles on these and other areas of international business.
Professor Arpan has been active in executive development programs for companies such as IBM, Verizon, Westinghouse, Eastman Chemical, Sonoco and Xerox. In 1999 he was awarded USC’s Outstanding Teacher Award for Executive Education.
His three decades of teaching, research, and consulting in international business, combined with his world travels and frequent interaction with government officials and international business practitioners and academicians, provide him with unique insights about international business, international education, and careers in these increasingly important fields.
Education: D.B.A., Indiana University, 1971; B.A., Indiana University, 1969
Jeffrey S. Arpan, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Business Administration, University of South Carolina, Moore School of Business, died Saturday May 28th, 2005 after a brief illness.
Last Updated: June 2005
Mojmir Bednarik, a founding member of AIB and a Fellow of the Academy, died on March 14, 1983. He was teaching on a part-time basis at Pace University after serving many years at Fairleigh Dickinson University.
Last Updated: October 2007
Jack N. Behrman
Dr. Behrman served the UNC Business School over 27 years as Professor of International Business, Director of the MBA Program, Associate Dean of the Faculty, and Luther Hodges Distinguished Professor of Ethics.
After graduation from Davidson College in 1943 with Honors in Economics, he received an MA in Economics from UNC and an MA and PhD from Princeton; later an honorary LLD from Davidson. He taught at Davidson, Princeton, Washington and Lee, George Washington, and the University of Delaware. Prior to joining UNC, he served as Assistant Secretary for Domestic and International Business in the U.S. Department of Commerce under Secretary Luther Hodges in the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations; his portfolio included international trade and investment policies and programs and preparation for wartime mobilization of the economy.
After returning to academia in 1964, he continued as an advisor to the Departments of State, Commerce, and Treasury, the National Academy of Science, and National Academy of Engineering — and in New York to the United Nations, Committee for Economic Development, American Management Association, Council on Foreign Relations, Council of the Americas, and the Fund for Multinational Management Education.
He was a pioneer in the fields of comparative management, foreign licensing of technology, international business and government relations, and the role of multinational enterprises – subjects on which he published over 40 books and monographs and more than 150 professional articles, including two books on the role of ethics in business and the professions. While in the government, he initiated and helped form the International Executive Service Corps, which provided volunteers from among retired executives to advise private enterprises in developing countries. In 1990, he initiated the formation of the MBA Enterprise Corps, supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and private corporations and foundations; it sent volunteers from MBA Programs of a Consortium of the top 50 graduate business schools to formerly state-owned enterprises in Central Europe, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Latin America, and Africa for tours of a year or more. He remained its Chairman and CEO for 15 years.
Dr. Behrman passed away on August 19, 2016 at the age of 94. He was a co-founder of the Academy of International Business, later its President and member of its Fellows. He was also a member of the Board of Directors of several corporate enterprises and non-government organizations. Donations in memory of Dr. Behrman may be made to The Davidson Trust, P.O Box 7170, Davidson University, Davidson, N.C. 28035
Last Updated: October 2004
Michael Z. Brooke
Michael Brooke passed away at the age of eighty-two on 1 April, 2003. He was a Fellow of the Academy of International Business, the Founder of the AIB’s UK Chapter in 1973, and the writer of more than 20 books, including one on New Product Development, published shortly before his death (see Just Off The Press section on page 8). The Academy of International Business extends its sympathy to the loved ones of Michael Brooke, who will be greatly missed by his colleagues in the AIB.
Last Updated: October 2007
Frederick D.S. Choi
Fred Choi is Dean of the Undergraduate College, Vice Dean of the New York University Stern School of Business and the Abraham L. Gitlow Professor of Accounting and International Business. He has served as chairman of Stern’s Department of Accounting, Taxation and Business Law and Stern’s International Business Department, director of the Vincent C. Ross Institute of Accounting Research, and a trustee of the Financial Executives Research Foundation.
He has lectured extensively to executive, faculty and student audiences in Europe, Latin America and Asia, most recently the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development for the International Standards of Accounting and Reporting in Geneva, Switzerland, and as a distinguished lecturer in International Accounting at the University of Bocconi in Milan, Italy.
He has contributed more than 100 pieces to the scholarly and professional literature, including the International Finance and Accounting Handbook, as editor of the Journal of International Financial Management and Accounting, and numerous other books and articles on the subject of international reporting and financial control.
He is the recipient of several awards, including the American Accounting Association’s Wildman Medal, the American Association of Publisher’s Outstanding Book Award, the Citibank Excellence in Teaching Award, and the American Accounting Association’s Outstanding International Accounting Educator Award. He is an honorary member of the Japanese Association for International Accounting Studies, and has been a Fellow of the Academy of International Business since 1992.
Fred joined New York University in 1981, and currently resides in New York City with his wife, Lois.
Frederick Choi passed away on October 2, 2012 due to illness.
Last Updated: November 2003
Susan P. Douglas
Susan P. Douglas, of New York University, passed away on January 3, 2011 in New York. Douglas served as AIB’s Vice President for Programs in 1991-92, attended and participated in most Annual meetings and was a strong and early contributor to the field of international marketing. She was elected as an AIB Fellow in 1991 and served as Dean of the Fellows for 1999-2002.
Last Updated: January 2011
Dr. Lawrence P. Dowd, a pioneer in the area of international business and founding member and Fellow of the Academy, passed away on April 24, 1980. At the time of his death, Professor Dowd was engaged in research in Japan following following his retirement as Professor of World Business in San Francisco State University less than one year ago. During his career, he made many notable contributions to the field of international business. His text, Principles of World Business, published in the early 1960’s, was one of the four earliest international texts.
Last Updated: October 2007
John H. Dunning
Emeritus Professor of International Business at the University of Reading, UK
State of New Jersey Emeritus Professor of International Business at Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA
Professor John Dunning has been researching into the economics of international direct investment and the multinational enterprise since the 1950s. He has authored, co-authored, or edited 50 books on this subject, and on industrial and regional economics. His latest publications are a two volume compendium of his more influential contributions to international business over the past 30 years (Edward Elgar, 2002), an edited volume on Making Globalization Good(Oxford University Press, (2003) and a jointly authored monograph (with Rajneesh Narula) Multinationals and Industrial Competitiveness, Edward Elgar (2004). He has recently completed (with Sarianna Lundan) a revised and updated edition to his widely acclaimed textbook Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy. This is scheduled for publication by Edward Elgar in March 2008. He is also currently advising Professor Tagi Sagafi-Nejad in the study of the UN’s role in our understanding of MNEs and economic development. It is expected that a volume containing the results of this study will be published by Indiana University Press in 2008.
Professor Dunning is Emeritus Professor of International Business at the University of Reading, UK and State of New Jersey Emeritus Professor of International Business at Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA. In addition, he has been Visiting Professor at several universities in North America, Europe and Asia. Professor Dunning is currently Senior Economic Adviser to the Director of the Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development of UNCTAD in Geneva, to the Investment and Technology Division of UNIDO in Vienna, and to the Federation of Investment Promotion Agencies of China. He is also past Chairman of a London based economics and management consultancy, Economists Advisory Group Ltd.
Professor Dunning has honorary doctorates from the University of Uppsala in Sweden (1975), the Autonomous University of Madrid in Spain (1990), the University of Antwerp in Belgium (1997), the Chinese Culture University in Taiwan (2007), and the University of Lund in Sweden (2007). He is also honorary Professor of International Business at the University of International Business and Economics at Beijing. He is past President of the International Trade and Finance Association, and of the Academy of International Business. A festschrift, edited by Peter Buckley and Mark Casson was published in his honour in 1992; and, in 2003, a second festschrift, embracing his work at Rutgers University, and edited by Peter Gray, was published. Also in 2003, a volume edited by John Cantwell and Rajneesh Narula entitled International Business and the Eclectic Paradigm was devoted to his theoretical contributions to international business. In August 2002, Professor Dunning was honoured as Distinguished Scholar in International Management at the Academy of Management’s annual meeting at Denver. In December 2004, he was presented with a Lifetime Achievement Award at the annual meeting of the European Academy of International Business in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Professor Dunning is Chairman of the Board of Editorial Advisors of the UNCTAD journal Transnational Corporations, and serves on several other editorial and advisory boards. He has homes at Henley on Thames in Oxfordshire, and in Roseland, Cornwall.
John H. Dunning died on January 29, 2009, after a year long battle with cancer. Professor Dunning was a former President of AIB (1987-88) and also acted as the Dean of the Fellows of AIB. He was also a two time JIBS Decade Award winner, winning in 1998 and 2008. In 2008, the AIB Executive Board recognized his contributions to AIB and the field of international business by naming the AIB President’s Award after him.
Last Updated: February 2009
William A. Dymsza
Some of you may recall Bill Dymsza as an early Editor of JIBS (when it was housed at Rutgers) and for his noted text on “Multinational Business Strategy” which has a significant focus on Foreign Market Entry Alternatives and the internationalization path of companies.
I knew Bill as a senior colleague, who I respected not only for his scholarship but for his intense dedication to the field of International Business. I did not know all the details of his rather colorful background that he was content to conceal behind a most unassuming manner. He knew, from his overseas experience, how insular American students and business were.
Bill was a Marine during World War II, stationed in China with an intelligence unit. After the war, he went to the Wharton School, graduating in 1948 with a MBA, and doctorate in 1951. He taught at Boston College, then became Chief Economist for the federal Office of Price Stabilization in Boston during the early 1950s, implementing price controls during the Korean War. He was also assistant economic commissioner with the US State Department, and served in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam during the mid-1950s
He met his wife Begonia (a Spaniard) in Paris where he was teaching International Business to US military officers (as a lecturer from the University of Maryland) and she was studying French. They celebrated their 50th anniversary a few weeks before Bill passed on, in the same suburb of Boston where his Polish immigrant parents had run a chicken farm in the first part of the 20th Century.
Bill Dymsza was at Rutgers from 1958 until he retired in 1985, and spent the rest of his time in Hollywood Florida, Braintree Massachusetts and Valencia.
For all his many accomplishments in life which included pioneering International Business studies, I remember Bill most for his gentle demeanor, unfailing support to junior colleagues, and fierce dedication to our field. He appeared to me to have no axe to grind, no personal agenda to push other than to help his colleagues.
A scholar? Emphatically “yes.” But also a disinterested and benevolent gentleman.
This eulogy was written by Farok Contractor. William Dmysza passed away on June 20, 2007 of heart failure. He was 86 and in retirement.
Last Updated: July 2007
Professor Richard N. Farmer, professor of international business in Indiana University, passed away February 28, 1987 following an extended illness. Professor Farmer was a former AIB president, an AIB Fellow, and one of the Academy’s earliest and most active members. He served for many years as chairman of the Indiana University International Business Department. His many contributions to the field of international business are well known and too numerous to list. The Academy’s board of Directors has chosen to recognize Professor Farmer’s contribution by renaming the AIB dissertation award in his honor. Henceforth the award will be known as the Richard N. Farmer Dissertation Award.
Last Updated: October 2007
There are many ways to remember him, and the memories of those who knew John Fayerweather reveal his multiple contributions as leader, teacher, researcher and mentor. He helped found the AIB in 1959, and he was our first President in 1960-1961 – a distant time which explains why many post-1980 AIB members know or remember little of him. Throughout his academic career, he was a great organizer tirelessly writing notes, memos, letters and reports to pull people in and bring them together and to build consensus instead of imposing his will on others.
He wrote the first IB textbook in 1960: Management of International Operations; Text and Cases (McGraw-Hill). It had few adoptions because there were hardly any IB courses outside of international economics, finance and foreign-trade (import-export) management. John helped fill this gap by organizing summer programs in the mid-1960s to guide the new young teachers of international marketing and management, comparative systems, area studies and business-government relations.
His crowning academic achievement was his 1969 monograph International Business Management: A Conceptual Approach (McGraw-Hill) which gave unity to the IB field by presenting major themes that remain valid and inspiring today. From economics, he drew the notion of unique resources – the source of competitive advantages – that could be fruitfully transmitted by international firms to host nations. Putting these resources to local use required adaptations to the foreign cultures and social systems analyzed in the social sciences. These two processes of “resource transmission” and “relations with host societies” often generate mutually benefits for both the multinational firm and the affected nations but sometimes they result in conflicts involving the power-based confrontation of the interests of the firm with different national interests and nationalistic attitudes – the political dimension of his conceptual framework. These transactions, relations and conflicts in diverse foreign countries lead toward a fragmented pattern of policies and activities that weaken the effectiveness of the multinational corporation whose unique potential vis-à-vis local national firms lies largely in its unified global capabilities. Achieving a balance between such “fragmentation” and “unification” composes the final organizational focus of his conceptual framework.
Thereby, he gave us the conceptual framework that guided or can be used to interpret the subsequent studies by many IB researchers of “global integration versus national responsiveness,” of “conflict resolution,” of “resources” and “advantages” and of the “structure and functioning” of multinational enterprises.
John Fayerweather was a voracious reader who shared his readings with IB scholars through his publication The International Executive for which he wrote book and article reviews as well as classified bibliographies at a time when it was difficult to locate materials for the new IB courses then being designed and offered.
His rectitude was striking. Thus, he did not hesitate to leave the AIB which he had helped found because it had accepted grants from the U.S. State Department and given the use of its mailing list to business associations on the side of multinational enterprises in their conflicts with governments. He returned to our flock only after the AIB Constitution had been amended to ban such dangerous liaisons. These and other events of his life are recounted in his 1986 monograph A History of the Academy of International Business from Infancy to Maturity: The First 25 Years (South Carolina Essays in International Business). He also wrote his professional autobiography for JIBS in 1994 (Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 1-44).
His moral and intellectual authority shines through the recent condolence messages – ranging from a student who was asked by his Japanese teacher to translate John Fayerweather’s 1969 book and who derived his IB vocation from this assignment which ultimately led him to become an AIB Fellow, to a member who thinks he is John Fayerweather’s “grandson” for having studied under a teacher who had been John’s doctoral student! As one mourner said: “What an enormous family we are!” – thanks to him. John Fayerweather’s legacy is broad and deep and we can extend it by contributing to the IB field which he loved so much and to which he gave of himself repeatedly, in many guises and so fruitfully.
This eulogy was written by Jean Boddewyn and originally published in the AIB Newsletter, 2005-Q2. John Fayerweather died on February 3, 2005 after a long battle with Alzheimer’s disease. He was 82 years old.
Last Updated: July 2007
Samuel Paul Garner passed away in 1997 and is recognized as a leader in the educational aspects of international business, with a focus on its accounting relationships. During all of his 50 years of travels abroad, Garner’s goal was to inform people about The University of Alabama and its academic programs.
A North Carolina native, Garner attended Duke University, graduating in 1932 with an A.B. in economics and minors in languages and physics. Using money he had saved working several jobs in college, Garner traveled to Europe after graduation, which would be the first of 60 other trips to 95 countries. While at Duke University, he met Ruth Bailey, who would become his wife.
A scholarship allowed Garner to return to Duke where he earned his master’s degree in 1934. Garner then taught at Mississippi State University and the University of Texas before accepting the position of associate professor of accounting at The University of Alabama. In 1940, Garner earned his Ph.D. He served as professor and head of the accounting department before being named as the second Dean of the College of Commerce and Business Administration.
During his tenure as dean, Garner led the college to new heights through the example he set as a researcher, writer, administrator and leader in professional organizations and in interaction with the business community. During his years as an academician, he published more than 50 articles and authored or co-authored seven textbooks. In 1990, he was named the International Accounting educator of the year by the American Accounting Association. He played a crucial role in having the AACSB add an international dimension to its accreditation requirements.
Last Updated: October 2007
Sumantra Ghoshal is a Fellow of the Advanced Institute of Management Research (AIM) in the U.K and a Professor of Strategic and International Management at the London Business School. He serves as a member of The Committee of Overseers of the Harvard Business School and was the Founding Dean of the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad.
Professor Ghoshal’s research focuses on strategic, organizational and managerial issues confronting large, global companies. He has published 10 books, over 70 articles and several award-winning case studies. Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution, a book he co-authored with Christopher Bartlett, has been listed in the Financial Times as one of the 50 most influential management books and has been translated into nine languages. The Differential Network: Organizing the Multinational Corporation for Value Creation, a book he co-authored with Nitin Nohria, won the George Terry Book Award in 1997. The Individualized Corporation, co-authored with Christopher Bartlett, won the Igor Ansoff Award in 1997, and has been translated into seven languages. His last book, Managing Radical Change, won the Management Book of the Year award in India.
Professor Ghoshal serves as the Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Duncan-Goenka, a large diversified business group in India, and sits on the Boards of several institutions including Mahindra-British Telecom Ltd, the Lufthansa School of Business and Swiss Re at Rüchlikon. He also maintains teaching and consulting relationships with several American, European and Asian companies.
With doctoral degrees from both the MIT School of Management and the Harvard Business School, Professor Ghoshal serves on the Editorial Boards of several academic journals and has been nominated to the Fellowships at the Academy of Management, the Academy of International Business and the World Economic Forum.
Dr. Sumantra Ghoshal died on March 3 2004, at age 55, of a brain hemorrhage.
Last Updated: March 2004
Phillip D. Grub
Phillip Grub is an Emeritus Professor of International Business at The George Washington University where he founded their International Business Program in 1966. He has been active in the Academy of International Business and its predecessor institutions since 1964 and is a past president.
During his academic career he authored, co-authored or edited some 17 books and had more than 300 articles published in refereed journals. He also had several articles published in the Wall Street Journal. He served as an advisor to numerous US presidents and foreign heads of state as well as many senior government and business leaders. In addition to doing research for publications and classroom use, a good portion of his sabbaticals and leaves of absence was spent working in the private sector and/or advising foreign governments on matters of economic development and developing a climate for attracting foreign investment. This included introducing South Korean construction firms to markets in Iran and the Arabic Gulf, doing a turn-around of the first joint venture bank in Vietnam, and taking the first billion dollar foreign investment into the People’s Republic of China.
Currently, he does guest lecturing in colleges and universities, undertakes selected consulting assignments in Asia and the Middle East, and works with and helps support a number of charitable organizations.
Dr. Phillip D. Grub, Professor Emeritus, age 76, passed away April 14, 2008 in Spokane, Washington after along, courageous bout with cancer. In lieu of flowers, the family requests that memorial contributions go to the Shriners Hospitals for Children, P.O. Box 2472, Spokane, Washington 99210-2472 or the charity of your choice. A celebration of his life will be held April 23, 2008, 2:00 p.m. at Cheney Funeral Chapel, 1632 West 1st Street, Cheney, Washington.
Last Updated: April 2008
Robert G. Hawkins
Robert G. Hawkins is Professor Emeritus of Management and Economics at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he served as Dean of the Ivan Allen College of Management, Policy, and International Affairs from 1993 to 1998. Earlier he served as Dean of the School of Management at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (from 1984 to 1992), and spent twenty years at New York University, progressing through the academic ranks to Professor of Economics and International Business. At New York University, Dr. Hawkins held the positions of Chairman of the Finance Department (1969-1971), Chairman of International Business (1975-1980), and Vice Dean of the Faculty of Business Administration (1980-1984). His area of professional expertise is International Economics and Business. He has written extensively in scholarly and popular journals on the role of the multinational corporation, international financial markets, and international trade and investment policy.
He has served as President of the Academy of International Business, Executive Secretary-Treasurer of the American Finance Association, as a member of Beta Gamma Sigma (honor society in Business Administration and Economics), and has received several research grants from government and the private sector. He was a member (1983-1988) and chairman of the International Affairs Committee of the AACSB, and is listed in Who’s Who in America and other biographic services.
Over the years, Dr. Hawkins has served as consultant to various government agencies, including U.S.I.A., U.S. Department of Treasury, the Port Authority of New York, as well as consultant to and lecturer at several major companies, including General Electric, IBM, Morgan Guaranty Trust Co., and others. He has traveled widely internationally, and has served as a short-term visiting faculty member in Kuwait, Sweden, Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and China, and as a consultant or lecturer at several other countries.
Dr. Hawkins has been active as a member of several corporate and advisory boards: Multinational Computer Models, Inc.; James Investment Research; Wellington Leisure Products, Inc.; and Petricca Industries, Inc. Other organizations include The Troy Savings Bank Music Hall Corporation; Lyceum Kennedy; the Wellspring Foundation; the Cox School of Business Administration; and Family and Children Services of Montclair.
He holds an A.B. degree from William Jewell College in Liberty, Missouri (1958) and a Ph.D. in Economics from New York University (1966). He is married and has two sons.
Robert G. Hawkins of Spencertown, NY, died suddenly at his home on Aug. 22, 2008 at the age of 72. Professor Hawkins was a former President of AIB (1983-84), winner of AIB’s 1998 Dean of the Year Award (now called the International Educator of the Year) and an AIB Fellow.
Last Updated: August 2007
Professor I. Harold Kellar of Baruch College passed away on March 20, 1980. He had been 33 years at Baruch College where he founded the International Business program which is now the largest one in the country. He also helped other schools get started in the international field in the 1950’s and 1960’s. He was one of the founders of the AIB and therefore one of its original Fellows; and he participated in one of the sessions on the history of the field of international business and the 1979 annual meeting of the AIB.
Last Updated: October 2007
Kwok Leung obtained his Ph.D. in social and organizational psychology from University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and is currently a chair professor of management at City University of Hong Kong. His research areas include justice and conflict, cross-cultural research methods, international business, and social axioms. He has published several books and over 100 academic articles in outlets such as Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Review, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Administrative Science Quarterly, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. His latest book, Beliefs around the World: Advancing Research on Social Axioms, with Michael Harris Bond as co-editor, will be published by Springer.
He is a senior editor of Management and Organization Review, and has served on the editorial board of several journals, including Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, and Organizational Research Methods. Previously, he was a Deputy Editor-In-Chief of Journal of International Business Studies, the editor of Asian Journal of Social Psychology, and an associate editor of Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Asia Pacific Journal of Management.
He is a former chair of the Research Methods Division of the Academy of Management, and a former president of Asian Association of Social Psychology. He is a fellow of Academy of Intercultural Research, Association for Psychological Science (USA), and Hong Kong Psychological Society, as well as a member of Society of Organizational Behavior.
Kwok Leung passed away on 25th May 2015 after a period of illness. He was 57.
Last Updated: March 2008
R. Hal Mason
Hal Mason, Professor of Management and International Business at the Anderson School at UCLA, died on September 3, 2005, after a 19-year struggle with the ravages of two massive strokes. Hal was especially kind to me and was one of my strongest advocates when I first applied for a position at the Anderson School in the summer of 1985. He chaired the committee that recommended my appointment and I was looking forward to working closely with him upon my arrival in the fall of 1986. Alas, it was not to happen. Earlier that year he suffered the first stroke, one that left him partially paralyzed and unable to speak clearly.
Hal joined the faculty at UCLA in 1966, following his graduation from Stanford University with a PhD in international business economics. He served in Korea with the US Army after high school and later worked with the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad (now an excursion railroad) as a brakeman prior to enrolling at Colorado State University where he obtained a BS in Agricultural Economics and an MS in Economics and Statistics in 1957. He then joined the staff of the Stanford Research Institute and this led to his subsequent interest in an academic career.
At UCLA, Hal taught the entire range of business policy and international business courses at both the masters and PhD levels. He also chaired 7 doctoral dissertations and served on 18 other PhD committees. He was clearly one of the most sought out advisors by doctoral students for both his economic insights as well as for his patience and commitment. He also served on the AIB Dissertation Awards Committee for three years until 1985, and was also elected to the AIB Executive Board in 1984, serving as Secretary for 1985-86.
His research took him to the four corners of the globe, including long visits to the Philippines, Europe and Brazil. His book on The Economics of International Business (with Bob Miller and Dale Weigel), first published by Wiley in 1975, became one of the most successful standard texts in the field in three editions. They followed with International Business (1981) which also did very well. Hal published widely in fields as broad as corporate acquisitions, corporate planning, conflict resolution, multinational strategies, and, his passion, technology transfer and appropriateness. The AIB recognized his accomplishments and service by electing him to the Fellows of the Academy in 1985. His last book, Management: An International Perspective (with Robert Spich) was published in 1987, after his illness.
As Hal’s wife Kay will testify, it was his stubborn determination that brought back from that first devastating stroke and which pushed him to relearn to walk and communicate. I remember visiting with him and the enormous efforts he would make to get his points across, yelling a four letter salty expletive every time he got stuck. Eventually, with much work and considerable willpower, Hal was able to write again, including a set of stories based on his ancestors who pioneered the American West and on his railroad days, much to the delight of his grandchildren.
Those who knew Hal and worked with him remember him for his witty and sharp-eyed comments at faculty meetings, his practical relevance and sharp intellect, and his down-to-earth attitude. Hal suffered fools badly, specially pompous academics, but would give generous of his time to help younger colleagues and doctoral students. He was among the pioneers of our field and both his legacy and his memory will live for decades to come.
This eulogy was written by Jose de la Torre.
Last Updated: July 2007
Raymond Mikesell of University of Oregon passed away on September 12, 2006 from natural causes at age 93. He was an economist who was part of the Bretton Woods Conference at the end of World War II. Mikesell was a member of the technical staff at the Bretton Woods conference, which resulted in the creation of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Mikesell served as a Vice President for Academy of International Business for the 1971-1972 board and was elected as an AIB Fellow in 1981.
Last Updated: January 2006
Lee C. Nehrt
Professor Nehrt died on Mar. 13, 2013 in Bloomington, Indiana. He was born in Baldwin, IL, the son of Martin and Amanda Nehrt, and graduated from Sparta High School in 1944. He received a BS in engineering from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. He met his wife, Ardith (nee Saltzman) in Honolulu and they were married in the Chapel at Pearl Harbor. After serving for four years as an officer in the Coast Guard, including several years as Executive Officer of the USCGC NETTLE, he resigned and, along with his wife, went to France where they studied for two years at the University of Paris from which he received a Diploma in Political Science. He then received an MBA from Columbia University followed by four years of work with Atomics International, a California company. He returned to Columbia University and earned his PhD in International Business in 1962.
His first teaching position was at Indiana University, beginning in 1962. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1965 and to Professor in 1969. In 1974, he transferred to Wichita State University where he was R. P. Clinton Professor of International Management (an endowed chair). From Kansas he went to New York City where he was Director of the World Trade Institute, in the World Trade Center. His last teaching position was as the Owens-Illinois Professor of International Management (an endowed chair) at Ohio State University. He retired from teaching in 1986.
Among his overseas consultancies, from 1965 – 1967 he was Ford Foundation Advisor to the Minister of Economics and Planning in Tunisia. From 1969 – 71 he was Chief of Party of a Ford Foundation project to develop the Institute of Business Administration in Dacca University in East Pakistan. Then, from 1986 – 1989 he was World Bank Advisor to the Ministry of Planning in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Dr. Nehrt was a frequent consultant to the United Nations and to the World Bank. He was Chief of Mission on 23 consultancies to various countries in Africa, the Middle East and South Asia.
His professional association was the Academy of International Business. He became a member in 1960, served as Vice President from 1967-69; and served as President from 1972-74. He also served as the first Dean of the Fellows of the Academy from 1978-1981.
He is the author of the following books: (1) Foreign Marketing of Nuclear Power Plants – 1965; (2) Financing Capital Equipment Exports – 1966; (3) International Finance for Multinational Business – 1967; (4) International Business Research: Past, Present and Future, with Richard Wright and Fred Truitt – 1969; (5) The Political Climate for Private Investment in North Africa – 1970; (6) Managerial Strategy for the Middle East, (in Arabic) with Ali El Salmi – 1972; (7) Managerial Policy and Strategy for S.E. Asia, with Lamp Li – 1973; (8) Managerial Strategy in an Asian Context, with Emanuel Soriano – 1974.
His publications also include the following monographs: (1) Education in International Business, with Steve Robock – 1963; (2) Business and International Education (ed.) – 1977; (3) The Internationalization of the Business School Curriculum, – 1979; (4) The Political and Economic Analysis of Countries, – 1981.
Last Updated: March 2013
Ernest W. Ogram, Jr.
With the passing of Georgia State University Professor Emeritus Ernest W.(Bill) Ogram, Jr. in 1999, the field of International Business and the AIB lost one of its first elected Fellows. An economics Ph.D. graduate of the University of Illinois, Bill joined the business faculty at Georgia State University (GSU) in 1959.
His interest in international Business and Economics fostered his initial membership in the AEIB (Association for Education in International Business, the predecessor of today’s AIB), and the creation (the following decade) of GSU’s Institute of International Business – one of America’s first tenure track faculty organizations in International Business.
In short, Bill was international before international became cool! Wild Bill’s commitment to International Business and his hiring skills were impressive – as evidenced by his successive hiring and subsequent management of four young assistant professors who would serve as presidents of the AIB: John Daniels, Duane Kujawa, José de la Torre, and yours truly, Jeff Arpan. He also served, from 1970-1975, as the first editor of JIBS – the top-ranked academic journal in the field of International Business.
The AIB and the entire field of International Business owe a great deal to Bill Ogram. May he rest in peace.
This eulogy was written by Jeffrey Arpan.
Last Updated: October 2007
Howard V. Perlmutter
Dr. Howard V. Perlmutter, is a world authority and pioneer on the globalization of firms and other institutions. He is an internationally recognized teacher, scholar, advisor to corporations, cities and governments, and universities. He holds a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering (Tau Beta Pi) from M.I.T., an Honorary Master’s Degree from the University of Pennsylvania and a Ph.D. from the University of Kansas in Social Psychology.
He assumed his professorial post at Wharton in 1969, and served as Secretary of the Faculty of Wharton School. Currently he is an Emeritus Professor and Director of the Emerging Global Civilization project, where he teaches one course and conducts research on different aspects of our First Global Civilization and its implications for the transition to transformation of international organizations, including the UN, national governments, religious institutions, enterprises, cities and global leadership.
His paper The Multinational Firm and the Future, published in the Annals of Political and Social Science in 1972 accurately forecast the evolution of the viability and legitimacy issues for MNCs. In 1998-1999, the Financial Times published a four article series by Prof. Perlmutter on the MNC in the Emerging Global Civilization which drew up a scenario for the next thirty years which received world wide attention and the need to develop a Global Civilization Mindset and Missing institutions and Networks to meet increasingly global challenges which range from those which are ecological such as renewable energy, ethnic and religious conflict, global terrorism with Weapons of Mass Destruction, and issues of Global regulation. A new version of this work on the Multinational Corporation is called The Tortuous Evolution of the Globally Civilized Enterprise in the 21st Century.
At Wharton, he led the internationalization process as Chairman of the Multinational Enterprise Unit and Founder-Director of the Worldwide Institutions Research Center. During this time with his colleague, the late Eric Trist, he formulated his vision the Social Architecture of the Global Societal enterprise, based on this paradigm for organizations in the 21st Century, now being applied to many other international organizations, nations and cities.
At Wharton, he introduced research and teaching on the global social architecture of the multinational enterprise, multinational organization development, global strategic alliances, global cities, and the globalization of education, in a course called Cross cultural management in the context of the First Global Civilization.
In executive education, he acted as Academic Advisor for Wharton’s Advanced Management Programs for thirteen years, a program where globalization was a central theme and which brought senior executives from countries around the world. He was also Director of the Wharton- Samsung Advanced Management Program, and Wharton’s Senior Management programs for Wharton in Beijing and Shanghai, China and Taiwan. Over his career, he has been involved in advisory roles and in executive education with over 100 multinational corporations based around the world, including IBM, GE, GTE, Whirlpool, Woodside Travel Trust, KPMG Peat Marwick, JP Morgan, Unilever, Nokia, and SKF.
He has served in professorial, lecturing and research posts in many countries. As a Fulbright Scholar at the Sorbonne, University of Paris, he introduced the study of group dynamics. Later, he served as Project Director of the International Communications Program at MIT’s Center for International Studies. Other research and teaching areas and roles include Visiting Professor at the Stockholm School of Economics where he helped guide The Futures of Sweden study, and Professor at IMD in Switzerland where he pioneered Global Leadership learning through (PMF) Personal and Managerial Feedback Groups.
At Wharton, he has frequently won outstanding teacher awards among the tenured professors including the David W. Hauck Award and most recently, in 2003, the Whitney Award. In 2003 he was also made an Honorary Member of the Golden Key International Honor Society. In the field of international management, he has published numerous articles most recently on Deep Dialog and the Futures of China. His books include the Theory and Practice of Social Architecture, (also in Spanish), The Muffled Quadrilogue: Technology Transfer to Developing Countries (2 volumes), and Multinational Organizational Development (also in Japanese) with David Heenan.
His work on cities extended to Paris as a 21st century world city, written under the auspices of the French Government, published as Paris: Ville Internationale. He also wrote the plans for Philadelphia as an International City. He has acted as an advisor to other cities on the globalization processes in Asia and Western Europe. His current research on global cities is on “Building the Global Virtual City for the 21st Century.”
He has also been advisor to U.S., Canadian governmental agencies, the World Health Organization, the League of Red Cross Societies in Geneva, and advisor to the Finnish government on the Futures of Finland studies.
He has also served as a keynote speaker and lecturer in international programs and conferences in Asia, North and South America, Central and Western Europe. He participated in the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland on three occasions, twice as a keynote speaker.
He has held board or advisory positions in Alfa Laval and Pharmacia in Sweden. He currently is an active member of the Board of Directors of the Global Interdependence Center in Philadelphia and on the International Advisory Boards of R post (registered E-mail) and Itradefinance, as well as on the editorial board of The Multinational Business Review.
He has been listed Who’s Who in the World. He is a Fellow of the Academy of International Business, and the Academy of International Management and a Commissioner on Globalization in the State of the World Forum led by Mikhail Gorbachev.
He is currently preparing a book tentatively entitled First or Last Global Civilization? The Race, in which he presents some alternatives to plausible current Apocalyptic scenarios with his theory of Symbiotic Societal Paradigms, Collaborative Social Architecture and Deep Dialog to critical 21st century Global Civilization Building Challenges. See a partial review of his research on Deep Dialog in Knowledge @Wharton entitled Dialog or Death? under Strategic Management or in Optimize magazine entitled Digging beneath Deep Dialog. Also, see the Guidestarco.com website.
In addition, he has exhibited his paintings on three occasions at the Burrison Gallery at Penn and has published one book of poetry An Indefinite Reprieve with another two: Visions of Ithaka and Not Quite Haiku forthcoming in 2004.
Howard Perlmutter passed away on November 8, 2011.
Last Updated: October 2004
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C.K. Prahalad, the Harvey C. Fruehauf Professor of Business Administration at the University of Michigan Business School, specializes in corporate strategy and the role and value added of top management in large, diversified, multinational corporations. His books include Competing for the Future (1994), co-authored with Gary Hamel and printed in fourteen languages, and named the Best Selling Business Book of the Year in 1994; Multinational Mission: Balancing Local Demands and Global Vision (1987), co-authored with Yves Doz, and The Future of Competition: Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers (co-authored with Venkatram Ramaswamy), forthcoming from Harvard Business School Press. He is involved in developing a new approach to the problem of the 5 billion poor around the world– the involvement of the private sector and the creation of markets. He is a member of the UN Commission on Private Sector an Development.
He is also the author of numerous award-winning articles. Harvard Business Review awarded him McKinsey Prizes for: The End of Corporate Imperialism, co-authored with Kenneth Lieberthal (1998); The Core Competence of the Corporation, co-authored with Gary Hamel (1990), and Strategic Intent, also co-authored with Gary Hamel (1989); Weak Signals vs. Strong Paradigms, published in the Journal of Marketing Research (1995), was awarded the 1997 ANBAR Electronic Citation of Excellence; The Dominant Logic: A New Linkage between Diversity and Performance (1986), co-authored with Richard Bettis, was selected the Best Article published in the Strategic Management Journal for the period 1980-88; The Role of Core Competencies in the Corporation (1993) received the 1994 Maurice Holland Award as the Best Paper published in Research Technology Management in 1993; A Strategy for Growth: The Role of Core Competence in the Corporation won the European Foundation for Management Award in 1993.
A prominent world-class figure, Professor Prahalad has consulted with the top management of many of the world’s foremost companies, such as Ahlstrom, AT&T, Cargill, Citicorp, Eastman Chemical, Oracle, Phillips, Quantum, Revlon, Steelcase, and Unilever. In addition, he serves on the Board of Directors of NCR Corporation, Hindustan Lever Limited and the World Resources Institute. He also has been in the top ten business thinkers in every poll for over a decade.
C.K. Prahalad died in San Diego, California on April 16, 2010, at the age of 68, after a short illness.
Last Updated: April 2010
Richard D. Robinson
Richard D. Robinson – teacher, author, journalist, explorer, internationalist – died on September 5, 2009 at age 88 after a long illness in Gig Harbor, Washington, his home for the past 23 years. He was the author of sixteen books and the editor and/or contributor to five others, plus many articles. Upon his retirement from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after 26 years of association, he was named a Professor Emeritus. While at M.I.T. he founded the study of international business management at the Sloan School of Management, and established M.I.T.’s post-war relationship with the People’s Republic of China (1979). Subsequently, he was active in a number of projects relating to the PRC, including the sponsorship and funding of the first book on contemporary U.S. life by a Chinese writer targeted to the general Chinese public. It proved to be a runaway best seller in China.
Robinson was a graduate of the University of Washington, the Harvard Graduate School of Business and of M.I.T., from which he received his PhD. He also spent a year at the London School of Oriental and African Studies focusing on Turkish history, literature, and language and Islamic law.
At the close of World War II, he was assigned to military intelligence in South Korea, where he uncovered (1946) a plot by South Korean rightists to provoke North Korea into a preemptive attack on South Korea. It was assumed by the conspirators that the U.S. would become engaged in the ensuing fight, thereby unifying the North and South and placing a united Korea under rightist control. Few listened to Robinson’s warnings, and he was very nearly court-martialed for his efforts. Later, he wrote a book-length analysis entitled Betrayal of a Nation (under the pseudonym Will Hamlin). The English version was never published, but copies were placed in several American libraries. The Korean version was published and circulated in Korea in c. 2003.
Moving to Turkey in 1947, he became known over the next decade as a recognized authority on contemporary Turkey. In reviewing his 1963 book, The First Turkish Republic (Harvard Press), a New York Times reviewer (Dec. 28, 1963) described him as one “who may know more about Turkey than any other living American.”
For several years he lived and traveled in rural Turkey as one of the first Americans to explore, photograph, and write about central and eastern Turkey. Initially, he was in Turkey as a Fellow of the Institute of Current World Affairs, then as the Turkish area specialist for the American Universities Field Staff. Coincidentally, he worked as a part-time journalist for the Chicago Daily News Foreign Service. In this latter capacity, he wrote the first articles published in a major U.S. newspaper about the Palestinian refugee problem (1949). These articles caused controversy, for many denied that there wereany Palestinian “refugees.”
Returning to the U.S. in 1956 after nearly ten years in Turkey and the Middle East, he taught contemporary Turkish history at Harvard for several years, meanwhile doing research at the Harvard Business School into the activities of U.S. corporations in lesser-developed countries. He was so appalled by the lack of sensitivity and of the naiveté on the part of many corporations in making decisions relative to the commitment of corporate resources abroad that, after several years of study, he resolved to pursue an academic career in international management. He wrote some of the first textbooks on the subject and established the field at the Sloan School of Management at M.I.T., the second such program in the U.S. His first text, International Business Policy (Holt, 1964) caused one reviewer to condemn Robinson as a “traitor” to American capitalism. As a founder of the Academy of International Business, he is generally regarded as one of the very early pioneers in the study, writing, and teaching in the international management field. Early on, he introduced the subject of culture and values to international management study and practice.
Later on, this last innovation brought him to the attention of the Bellingham-based Florence R. Kluckhohn Center for the Study of Values, which he chaired for several years prior to his death. The Center has been instrumental in paving the way for the resolution of cultural conflict in a number of areas, most notably between Native Americans and others, such as the Department of Defense in Alaska. Robinson was also active in the Tacoma-Seattle World Affairs Council and in the Hamlin Robinson School for Dyslexic Children in Seattle. This School was established in the memory of his older brother by his brother’s widow. Robinson’s last publication was a co-edited volume of his father’s writings, In The Process of Creation (privately published, 2002). His father, Reverend William D. Robinson of Yakima Washington, was a much esteemed friend of the late Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas.
Robinson leaves a wife, Carol and three children – Linda McCaffrey of Brookfield Center, CT; Kermit Robinson of Hanover, MA; and Wendy Robinson of Bethlehem, NH; five grandchildren and one great grandchild. His children were by his first wife, Elizabeth Ann of Grosse Pointe, MI., who died in 1979. He also leaves six stepchildren – Steven, Shelley, Michael, Terri, Julie, and Eric Schreiber – plus four step grandchildren.
His family always took top priority in his affections, time, efforts and resources. He tried to maintain a loving, supportive environment both for his natural children and for his six stepchildren. They were all loved, but particularly his wife, Carol, who remained steadfastly supportive and caring up to the end. She deserves an ever-shining halo.
A memorial reception will be held on September 19, 2009 at the family home in Gig Harbor, WA from 1 to 4 pm and on October 2, 2009 in Denver, CO. Donations may be made to the Hamlin Robinson School for Dyslexic Children, Seattle, WA or Minerva Scholarship Fund for deserving women returning to school, PO Box 2705, Gig Harbor, WA, 98335.
Last Updated: September 2009
Stefan H. Robock
Stefan H. Robock is R. D. Calkins Professor Emeritus of International Business at the Graduate School of Business, Columbia University.
A native of Wisconsin, Professor Robock received his BA degree (1938) from the University of Wisconsin and his MA (1941) and Ph.D. (1948) degrees from Harvard University. He also has honorary degrees: Professor Honoris Causa, University of Recife (Brazil) 1956 and MA (Hon.) ESTE, San Sebastian (Spain) 1974.
From 1940 to 1954, he worked for the U. S. Government, with four years out during WW II as a Navy Air Intelligence Officer in North Africa, Brazil and Japan. His government work included a five year term (1949-54) as Chief Economist of the Tennessee Valley Authority.
In 1954, Robock began a series of foreign assignments and served for 2½ years as United Nations Economic Development Adviser for Northeast Brazil. Many subsequent missions in Brazil resulted in a cumulative residence of about 5 years in Brazil. Other overseas missions were undertaken for the UN, World Bank, Ford Foundation and the U. S. government in India, Bolivia, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Liberia, Malawi and other countries. He lectured for USIA in Iran, Afghanistan, Korea, India, Peru, Chile, Brunei and Thailand.
His academic career commenced 1960 as Director of Indiana University’s pioneering international business program. From1967 to 1984, he was on the faculty of Columbia University. He served in 1985 as Visiting Professor at China’s first management program (Beijing Management Institute) and in 1989 at the University of International Business and Economics in Beijing, China. In 1992, He was a visiting professor at the International Management Center, Budapest. Hungary.
Author of 7 books and numerous articles on international business, regional development, nuclear power, international technology transfers, Japanese trading companies and a textbook (Kenneth Simmonds, Co-author) International Business & Multinational Enterprises, 4th Ed. (Irwin), 1989.
Stefan H. Robock died on August 1, 2012 of natural causes at the age of 97 at his home in Bluffton, SC.
Last Updated: August 2012
Franklin R. Root
Husband, father, teacher, scholar, friend, gentleman. By the time he passed away at the age of 82 on August 4, 2005, Russ Root had been all of those and more.
My association with him began when I was a graduate student at Penn in the late 1960s. In search of a dissertation topic and a dissertation chair I came upon an article he had written on technology transfer – my topic. We became close and he became my chair. As I became more familiar with his work, it became increasingly evident that he was indeed a “Renaissance man” and a pioneering scholar, having written on topics such as political risk and multinational enterprises long before others.
His book was published originally as International Trade: Theory, Policy, Practice by Southwest in 1959 (Roland L. Kramer, Maurice Y. d’Arlin and Franklin R. Root). The second edition was published as International Trade and Finance (Root, Kramer and d’Arlin) in 1966, and starting in 1978, as the now classic textbook Root, International Trade and Investment, which went into seven editions by 1994.
Russ retired from Wharton in 1993 but remained intellectually active, dedicating most of his time to history and philosophy. He left behind a giant professional legacy of intellectual and professional contributions that spanned pioneering work with Howard Perlmutter on multinational enterprises at Wharton, the presidency of the Academy of International Business, membership and subsequently deanship of the AIB Fellows. His last formal role at our academy was as AIB Historian.
There is no tribute more fitting than words of colleagues. Here are a few remarks:
Howard V. Perlmutter, University of Pennsylvania: Russ Root will be long remembered for his depth and breadth of understanding of International Business as both a pioneer and continued excellence in his contributions to the field. As a colleague, he was outstanding in his kindness and generosity of spirit. He will be irreplaceable.
Farok J. Contractor, Rutgers University: “Russ Root (always Dr. Root to me) was a pioneer in our field, a scholar who made critical advances in the area of modal choice, in the analysis of political risk, and other topics which subsequently have grown in importance. But above all, I fondly recall that smiling animated face, peering at me from above his pipe, drawing me into fields of knowledge and history that I never knew before”.
Steve Kobrin, Wharton, University of Pennsylvania: “Russ was a committed internationalist and a co-founder of the Multinational Enterprise Unit at Wharton. He was also a voracious reader and collector of books. He retired from Penn in 1993. He was a wonderful guy and a great colleague. He will be sorely missed”.
Robert Hawkins: “Russ Root was a fine professional and good friend. He did not take himself too seriously, but seriously enough. He was a good mentor to me as AIB President, since I followed him. He was a joy to work with; always congenial with a great sense of humor; shaped by his military experiences of World War II. These helped make him a colorful leader, and one who cared greatly about the AIB, its mission, and its roots”.
Jean Boddewyn, Baruch College, City University of New York: “Russ was a guide and a mentor, and a great colleague who made significant contributions to the filed and the profession.”
John Stopford, London Business School: “Russ was a pioneer, committed to bridging the gap between economics abstractions and managerial practice.”
Lauge Stetting, Copenhagen Business School: “Russ was a lasting inspiration for his Danish colleagues the CBS into a truly. His happy optimism will always be remembered.”
Jose de La Torre, Florida International University: “I still consider Russ’s path-breaking book on entry strategies one of the best summaries of cross border investment strategies ever written. May he rest in peace!”
Nelson Joyner, Federation of International Trade Associations: “What a down to earth person! I am indebted to him for his text on Entry Strategies and for his wisdom as a consultant, and for his contributions to the FITA.”
P.M. Rao: “I join all who have known Professor Root personally and professionally in your tribute to a great academic, as I have known him from his work.”
Warren Keegan, Pace University: “I have many memories of Russ from meetings and conversations at AIB meetings all over the world and I recall reading his work as a doctoral student. He will be greatly missed.”
Raj Aggarwal, Kent State University: “Russ was a great guy and I learned a lot from his writings. I remember clearly our very interesting and illuminating discussion about the Rudyard Kipling character, Gunga Din. According to Russ, he was perhaps an early precursor of the global citizen. He was a very stimulating conversationalist.”
Rosalie Tung, Simon Fraser University: “Despite his important contributions to our field, particularly in the area of foreign market entry strategies, Russ Root remained very modest. He was a wonderful colleague and will be greatly missed.”
John Daniels, University of Miami: “I took my first IB course in an MBA program in 1964 in which we used a text co-authored by Russ Root. The course and text were for international trade, which was a misnomer because they were already talking about foreign investment and foreign production by international companies. This experience had a lot to do with my decision to continue to study for a PhD in international business.”
Karl P. Sauvant, United Nations: “Franklin was always a very supportive teacher who took a special interest in foreign students — and I personally benefited from that and appreciated it very much.”
Thank you, Russ.
This eulogy was compiled by Tagi Sagafi-Nejad. It was originally published in the AIB Newsletter, 2005-Q4.
Last Updated: October 2007
Alan M. Rugman
Dr. Alan M. Rugman is Professor of International Business at the Henley Business School of the University of Reading. He is the Director of Research in the School of Management. Previously he held the L. Leslie Waters Chair of International Business at the Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, 2001-2009. He was Thames Water Fellow in Strategic Management at Templeton College, University of Oxford from 1998-2001. Previously he held tenured posts at the University of Toronto 1987-1998, Dalhousie University 1979-1987, and the University of Winnipeg 1970-1978. He has also been a visiting professor at Columbia Business School, London Business School, Harvard University, U.C.L.A., M.I.T., Warwick Business School, and the University of Paris-La Sorbonne.
Dr. Rugman has published over 250 articles dealing with the economic, managerial, and strategic aspects of multinational enterprises and with trade and investment policy. These have appeared in such leading refereed journals as: The American Economic Review, Strategic Management Journal, and the Journal of International Business Studies.
As a leading authority in international business, Dr. Rugman served as President of the Academy of International Business in 2004-06. He was elected a Fellow of the Academy in 1991. He is also a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, elected 1998.
Born in England in 1945, Dr. Rugman became a Canadian citizen in 1973 and a U.S. resident in 2002. He earned his B.A. in economics from Leeds University in 1966, M.Sc. in economic development from London University’s School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) in 1967 and his Ph.D. in economics from Simon Fraser University in 1974. He was elected to an M.A. (Oxon) in 1998. Dr. Rugman served as an outside advisor on free trade, foreign investment and international competitiveness to two Canadian Prime Ministers over the 1986-1993 period.
His major books include: Inside the Multinationals (Columbia University Press 1981 and Palgrave, 2006); Multinationals and Transfer Pricing (St. Martin’s Press 1985); Global Corporate Strategy and Trade Policy (Routledge 1990); Foreign Investment and NAFTA (ed.) (University of South Carolina Press 1994); International Business (McGraw-Hill 1985); Environmental Regulations and Corporate Strategy (Oxford University Press 1999); Multinationals as Flagship Firms (Oxford University Press 2000); International Business (FT/Prentice Hall 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009); The End of Globalization (Random House 2000); The Oxford Handbook of International Business (Oxford University Press 2001, 2009); The Regional Multinationals (Cambridge University Press 2005); Regional Aspects of Multinationality and Performance (Elsevier, 2007), Multinationals and Development (Yale University Press, 2008) and Rugman Reviews International Business (PalgraveMacmillan, 2009).
Alan Rugman passed away on July 8, 2014 after a brief illness.
Last Updated: June 2009
John K. Ryans, Jr.
Dr. John K. Ryans, Jr. is Bridgestone Professor Emeritus of International Business and Marketing at Kent State University. He currently is conducting research on several global promotion, outsourcing and strategy issues.
During 2003-2004, Dr. Ryans was the James Good Professor of International Business at Bowling Green State University. A graduate of Indiana University, Dr. Ryans has also served as the Schering-Plough Distinguished Visiting Professor at Fairleigh-Dickinson University and as a visiting professor at Columbia University and the University of Houston. In 1999, Dr. Ryans received Kent State University’s Distinguished Scholar Award (campus-wide selection). He received the College of Business Administration’s 2000 Distinguished Teaching Award.
During his career, Dr. Ryans has published more than 20 books and over 150 articles. His books include Thinking Strategically(Random House), the Management of International Advertising (Allyn & Bacon), Marketing Strategies for the New Europe (A.M.A.), Essentials for Marketing High Technology (Lexington Books), and Business India (Paramount). His articles have appeared in JIBS, JIM, JWB, IMR, IJA, the California Management Review, Business Horizons, the Harvard Business Review, and other journals. He is the Global Marketing Editor for Marketing Management.
Dr. Ryans has been an extremely active member of AIB for many years and was elected to the Fellows in 1994. To illustrate, he was a member of the Annual Farmer Dissertation Awards Committee for several years and chaired the Committee in 1998. In Addition to AIB, he has also been active in the AMA. He is an elected member of its Global Marketing Special Interest Group and is a founding member of the AMA Foundation Leadership Circle.
Dr. Ryans has consulted with a large number of major U.S. and foreign MNC’s and the U.S. Departments of Education and Commerce. And, he has served as a CIBER reviewer.
John Ryans passed away on September 14, 2013.
Last Updated: September 2013
Robert B. Stobaugh
Professor Stobaugh is a Fellow and past-president of the Academy of International Business. He has received Harvard Business School’s Distinguished Service Award. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, listed in Who’s Who in America, and a member of the Hall of Distinction of Louisiana State University. He joined the Harvard Business School faculty after working as a manager for major companies at home and abroad.
Stobaugh’s research and teaching have focused on three fields: most recently, corporate governance, and previously energy and international business. He has authored, co-authored, or edited seventeen books and monographs and over 100 articles.
His article, “The Bent Measuring Stick of the Multinational Enterprise,” was voted one of the best twenty articles ever published on international business. A federal judge referred to him as “one of the nation’s foremost experts on corporate governance.” His work has been cited a number of times on the front page of the Wall Street Journal and his book, Energy Future, was a national best-seller.
Stobaugh is a director of the National Association of Corporate Directors (NACD). He teaches NACD seminars to help directors learn to improve the operations of their boards and has served on five NACD Blue Ribbon Commissions.
Stobaugh has served as a director of eleven different companies in a variety of industries. In his extensive experience in Washington, Stobaugh has met with a President of the United States and has testified nineteen times before House and Senate committees.
Professor Stobaugh received a B.S. in chemical engineering from Louisiana State University and a Doctor of Business Administration from the Harvard Business School.
Dr. Stoubaugh passed away on August 14, 2017 at the age of 89. Donations in memory of Dr. Stobaugh may be made to the Harvard Business School or to St. Martin’s Episcopal Church, 717 Sage Road, Houston, TX 77056.
Last Updated: February 2018
John Stopford is Professor Emeritus of the London Business School, where he was the founding Chairman of the Strategic and International Management Area. He is also Chairman of TLP International Inc., a Visiting Professor at Nihon University, Tokyo and the Kiel Institute of World Economics. Professor Stopford is a board-level consultant and coach for chief executives, as well as designer of board-level executive education programmes for many multinationals. His services have been retained by governments (most recently Brazil and Peru) and by ministries such as METI (formerly MITI) in Japan.
He is a Fellow of the AIB and has been a member since the early 1970s. He was elected Vice-President for the 1995-6 term and was co-chair of the 1995 Annual meeting in Seoul. His first book, with Lou Wells of Harvard, was profiled at the 2002 Annual meeting in Puerto Rico.
His publications include 20 books and monographs and over 80 scholarly articles. His first book, Managing the Multinational Enterprise (with Louis Wells, 1972) was a best seller in the USA and Japan. Rival States, Rival Firms (with Susan Strange, 1991) won the book prize of the US Academy of Management in 1992 and Rejuvenating the Mature Business (with Charles Baden-Fuller, 1994) won the innovation award of Choice magazine. His latest book, The Future of the Multinational Company (joint editor), was published by Wiley in 2004.
Professor Stopford’s first job was in the Rotterdam docks in the 1950s. He trained as a craft apprentice at Baker Perkins in the UK and then as an engineer at Oxford and at MIT, where he worked in the Saturn 1 programme. He worked for Royal Dutch/Shell in the Netherlands and the UK and was later managing director of a subsidiary of Booker McConnell in Guyana. He taught at Harvard, where he earned his doctorate as a Ford Foundation Fellow, and at the Manchester Business School, before joining London in 1971. In addition, he has held appointments as visiting professor at Wharton and MIT (USA), Stockholm (Sweden), and Aoyama Gakuin (Tokyo). He has also worked as a senior staff member at the United Nations, served as non-executive director of Shell (UK) Ltd. and the Land Warfare Centre of the British Army, as Board Advisor to Vickers plc, as director of numerous small companies and on various UK committees of enquiry.
He is married to Sally and has two sons and three grandchildren. He is a member of the Steering Group of the Order of St. John and a Governor of Goodenough College in London. He made two first ascents in the Himalayas in the 1950s and is now a keen hill walker. Music, theatre and reading are among his other hobbies.
John Stopford died on August 13, 2011, after a long battle with cancer.
Last Updated: November 2006
An MBA in 1951 from the University of Michigan was followed by a missionary call to the then Belgian Congo. We spent eighteen months in Belgium, nine months with a Walloon family in Brussels and nine months with a Flemish family in Antwerp, a good introduction to cross-cultural living. My wife studied tropical medicine and I audited courses at the University of Brussels.
In the Congo, my wife ran a bush hospital and I started a Normal School. My courses in Brussels helped me design an intelligence test in Swahili that helped select candidates for my school from many applications from different area tribes. That career was rudely interrupted in 1961 when the United Nations troops came to rescue my family (three children born there) when we were regularly threatened by rebels in the newly independent Congo. I found that I enjoyed teaching (in French there) so in America I decided on a Ph.D. in, of course, International Business. I received the first doctoral fellowship at Marketing Science Institute where I studied the new EEC and American firms’ adjustments to it, (published in ’67).
After a couple years at Wharton, I went to the University of Michigan for the rest of my career. My international experience helped to write books on The Cultural Environment of International Business and International Marketing. The latter is in Chinese and several other foreign languages. I was active in AIB (president in 1970, 71) and lectured four summers in China and lesser times in Indonesia, England, Netherlands, and other countries on three continents. Some consulting with business, government, and universities. Our IB Ph.D.’s are active on five continents.
As emeritus professor, I serve on editorial boards of eight journals, host foreign professors, and work with area study centers (Japan, China, South Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Mid-East) with occasional lectures abroad.
Vern Terpstra died on November 6, 2013 at the age of 86.
Last Updated: November 2003
Hans B. Thorelli
Professor Thorelli’s affiliation with IU began in 1964, at the Harvard-operated IMEDE Institute in Lausanne, Switzerland. From 1966-69 he served as chairman of the Marketing Department, and in 1972 Thorelli was named the E. W. Kelley Professor of Business Administration.
Thorelli received his M.A., LL.B., and Ph.D. from the University of Stockholm, and also an honorary Doctor of Economics from Goteborg University in Sweden. His doctoral thesis on the origins of US antitrust policy was published in three countries. Since then, Thorelli has published 10 books, and over a hundred articles. In addition to his position at IU, he has been a visiting professor at 15 universities, including the London Graduate School of Business Studies, the Schools of Business at St. Gallen, Switzerland, and technical universities in Dalian and Shanghai.
Professor Thorelli is an elected fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences of Sweden and the AIB. A former member of the US President’s Consumer Advisory Council, Thorelli has been a US representative to the OECD in Paris. He has had multiple research grants from the Ford, Rockefeller, and MUCIA Foundations. He directed the first-ever field study of the consumer experience in the marketplace in a developing country. (Thailand, 1100 interviews).
His International Operations Simulation (INTOP) provided participants a pilot exercise in running MNEs. INTOP has served many generations of students in more than one hundred institutions around the world. A new breakthrough came with his INTOPIA B2B simulation, published in 2007. For the INTOPIA homepage, please see www.intopiainc.com.
Professor Hans Birger Thorelli passed away on August 18, 2009 at the age of 88 years.
Last Updated: September 2009
Danny G. Van Den Bulcke
Daniel Van Den Bulcke is Professor of International Management and Development at the University of Antwerp. He is Director of the Centre of International Management and Development Antwerp (CIMDA), Scientific Director of the China Europe Management Centre (CEMC) and Vice-President of the Academy of International Business (AIB).
Daniel Van Den Bulcke is also Professor of International Management at the Ghent University and teaches a course about the Chinese economy at the Catholic University of Leuven (K.U. Leuven). He is a former President of the International Trade Investment Institute (ITI), the European International Business Association (EIBA) and the Institute of Development Policy and Management (IDPM). He was Scientific Co-ordinator of the Intercollegiate Centre of Doctoral Studies in Management and the European Institute of Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM) for which he organises the doctoral Tutorial in International Business since 1987. He has been nominated Titular Professor of the European Institute of Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM) in 1998.
He taught at the University of Limburg, the College of Europe in Bruges and ICHEC, Brussels. He was elected Fellow of the Academy of International Business in 1992. He has been Visiting Professor at several foreign universities (the Netherlands, Poland, Indonesia, P.R. China, India, Vietnam, the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, Bolivia, etc.).
He is the author of many books and articles on foreign direct investment issues and the activities of multinational enterprises especially with regard to Europe and Asia. He was involved in research activities and assignments on behalf of Belgian public authorities and international organizations such as the UN Centre on Transnational Corporations, the OECD, The International Labour Organization, the World Bank, the European Union, the American Chamber of Commerce, the China Europe Management Centre, etc.
Danny Van Den Bulcke passed away on January 8, 2014.
Last Updated: January 2014
I expect, like most people, I first met Ray Vernon through his writing. I read his 1966 article on the product cycle and his 1971 Sovereignty at Bay while writing my doctoral thesis but it was not until 1978 when I was asked to review Storm over the Multinationals for the Economic Journal, that I really took Ray’s thinking on board. I think that this review, written before I ever met Ray personally, says it all:
VERNON (Raymond). Storm over the Multinationals. The Real Issues. London: Macmillan Press, 1977. Pp. vii + 260. £10.00
Professor Vernon has done the economics profession a valuable service in writing a readable book on the multinational enterprise (MNE). His intelligent synthesis of recent academic research on the MNE can be placed in the hands of motivated students lacking formal training in economic theory. In the past such readers may have stumbled upon misconceived works such as that by Barnet and Müller, but now an orthodox explanation of the MNE and associated policy issues has been produced by Vernon. The first half of the book examines the typical organisational structure of an MNE. The large size, geographical diversity, centralised management control and oligopolistic nature of the MNE are all aspects of its desire for stable earnings. The potential market power of the MNE is held in check by the spectre of entropy, a process which constrains the MNE to search constantly for new product lines and markets. The innovations made by the MNE generally require large quantities of capital and organisational skills. These are available in the home nation at low relative cost and explain why most research is done by the parent firm rather than by its overseas subsidiaries. The remainder of the book reviews the current policy conflicts between the MNE and developing nations. In these chapters Vernon presents new insights into the process of technology transfer and the appropriate pricing policy for an MNE. He is critical of the study by Vaitsos with its “exotic estimates” of transfer pricing. There is no hard evidence of excessive profits being earned by MNEs. Since governments of host nations have the power to impose their own tax policy on the MNE ultimate power resides with the nation state. This study deserves a wide readership.
ALAN M. RUGMAN
Reproduced from The Economic Journal 88 (June 1978) p. 404.
Writing for publication can focus the mind. Twenty-one years later the inspiration found in Ray’s book is still vivid, and as relevant today as then.
The remarkable clarity of Ray’s analysis comes through in all of his publications. In the 1966 article the logic of the product cycle model is embedded within the institutional norms of the time, namely the dominance of U.S.-based foreign direct investment and the worldwide spread of technology through U.S. multinational enterprises (MNEs). Despite its title the 1971 book does not depict the MNE as the new ruler of the world, but rather discusses the changing patterns of MNE-government relationships and the ways in which the balance between MNEs and nation states can be upset. This, again, is the theme of Ray’s most recent book, his 1998 In the Hurricane’s Eye.
I first met Ray in April 1979, at a conference at Harvard Business School on state-owned enterprises (SOEs) which he organized jointly with Yair Aharoni. He rather startled me by stating that he would work on SOEs for the next ten years, and that a better name for them was state-owned businesses, but that the abbreviation as SOBs would be somewhat inappropriate, even in the 1970s.
I next saw Ray in April 1983 at a conference in Washington D.C. on intra-industry direct foreign investment, sponsored by the NSF. He discussed a paper by John Dunning and made some encouraging remarks about my own research. But it was not until I was a visiting scholar at Harvard’s Centre for International Affairs in 1985/86 that I received the full benefit of Ray’s warmth, insights, pointed anecdotes and ever-present good humour, which I think he reserved for those he thought of as serious students of international business. To be so regarded by Ray was to be a member of an exclusive club. On a broader stage, Ray was famous for his seminar on multinationals at Harvard Business School and also helped to establish the CFIA, before moving to his third high profile appointment at Harvard, at the Kennedy School.
On subsequent visits to Cambridge it was always an open door with Ray, including an invitation to speak on NAFTA at his Kennedy School Seminar in 1993. Also in 1993, my friend and colleague, Lorraine Eden, managed to have Ray and his wife visit Ottawa, for her conference on Multinationals in North America.
I last saw Ray in Vienna at the AIB Conference in October 1998, where he journed to speak at a special panel we organized on globalization. He participated fully in the conference, offering all of us one last opportunity to enjoy conversations with this giant of the field of international business. Ray has left us but his work lives on.
Raymond Vernon, died on August 26, 1999 due to complications from cancer. He was 85. This eulogy was written by Alan M. Rugman and originally published in the 1999-Q3 AIB Newsletter.
Last Updated: July 2007
- Cateora, Philip R.
- Mandell, Stuart
Gerhard G. Mueller
Dr. Mueller is a former member of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (USA) and Professor Emeritus of Accounting at the University of Washington, Seattle. He holds an honorary doctorate in economics from the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Helsinki, and an honorary Doctor of Law Degree from Kwansei Gakuin University, Hyogo, Japan.
At the University of Washington, Dr. Mueller served as the Hughes M. Blake Professor of International Business Management and later as the Julius A. Roller Professor of Accounting. His other services at the University of Washington include Acting Dean of the Business School, Senior Associate Dean, Executive Director of the Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER), Chair of the Department of Accounting, and Director of the Master of Professional Accounting Program. He received BS, MBA and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California Berkeley, and is a CPA with wide professional and business experience. During 1988-89, he served as President of both the American Accounting Association (AAA) and the Washington Society of CPAs. He is past chairman of the Board of Trustees of Overlake Hospital Medical Center in Bellevue, Washington, and of the Accounting Education Change Commission (AECC).
Dr. Mueller has lectured at numerous universities, conferences, and management programs in both the United States and abroad. He is the author, co-author and co-editor of 19 books and more than 100 professional journal articles and reviews. His biographical listings appear in “Who’s Who in the World” and “Who’s Who in America”, among others. He served on several national advisory committees and boards of directors. He is a fellow of the Academy of International Business. He won several distinguished teaching and outstanding educator awards (American Accounting Association, 1982; University of Washington, 1983; Washington Society of CPAs, 1985; Beta Alpha Psi, 1987; American Institute of CPAs, 2000), and the Wildman Medal in 1986.
Ehrenfried Pausenberger was born in 1931 in Teisnach, Bavaria. He studied business administration, economics and law at the Universities of Munich and Freiburg (Breisgau). He was then a research assistant at the Institute for Business Administration at the University of Munich, where he received his PhD in 1957. After having spent some years in an auditing firm he returned to the university. In 1967 he received his “Habilitation”-degree from the University of Nuremberg.
In the turbulent year 1968 he became a full professor for business administration at the “Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Politik” of Hamburg. Five years later he took over a newly created chair for International Business at the Justus-Liebig-Universität in Giessen. At that time, this was the first chair of this kind in Germany. Since then about 1.000 students have studied this subject; they now work for multinational corporations.
In research, Pausenberger has worked mainly in the areas of international financial management, personnel management and on the relationship between MNCs and developing countries. He has published numerous books and articles on these subjects. Pausenberger also served as editor for the series “Gießener Schriftenreihe zur Internationalen Unternehmung”.
Apart from international management, Pausenberger also worked in the area of business combinations (alliances, mergers & acquisitions).
For nearly 25 years, Pausenberger has been the academic director of the working group “Organization and management of international corporations” of the Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft. About two dozen multinational corporations belong to this working group which was founded with the aim of exchanging ideas between academics and practitioners.
Pausenberger is a member of several national and international academic societies. He has been elected a Fellow by the AIB. When he retired (1999) he was honoured with a Festschrift by his pupils, colleagues and friends, entitled: “Globalization. Challenge for management at the beginning of the 21. century”.
Last Updated: January 1900
- Toyne, Brian